رسانه، فرهنگ و رفتار های محیط زیستی (مطالعه موردی: شهروندان سنندج)

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دانشیار جامعه‌شناسی محیط زیست، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران

2 دکتری جامعه شناسی، دانشگاه مازندران، بابلسر، ایران

چکیده

رسانه‌ها در دنیای امروز نقش بی‌بدیلی در شکل‌دهی و هدایت افکار عمومی و جریان‌سازی رویدهای محیط زیستی دارند. درک عمومی از مسائل محیط زیستی وابسته به میزان توجه رسانه‌های جمعی و میزان تاثیرپذیری مخاطبان است. هدف مقاله حاضر بررسی تاثیر مصرف رسانه‌ای بر رفتارهای محیط زیست است. پرسش اصلی مقاله این است که "آیا مصرف رسانه‌ای می‌تواند تغییری در فرهنگ محیط زیستی (نگرش، ارزش، دغدغه، آگاهی) و رفتار محیط زیستی ایجاد کند؟". برای پاسخگویی به این سوال، ابتدا نظریه‌های مرتبط، مطرح و سپس "نظریه کاشت" در جامعه‌شناسی ارتباطات، به عنوان چارچوب نظری انتخاب گردید. روش تحقیق در این مطالعه پیمایش و جامعه آماری آن شهروندان شهر سنندج در سال 1398 است. حجم نمونه برابر با 437 نفر بوده و نمونه‌های مورد مطالعه با استفاده از روش نمونه گیری خوشه‌ای چند مرحله‌ای انتخاب گردیدند. داده‌های تحقیق با استفاده از پرسشنامه و با روائی و پایایی مطلوب جمع‌آوری شد. نتایج تحقیق نشان می‌دهد که میزان مصرف رسانه‌ای بر نگرش، ارزش و رفتار محیط زیستی تاثیر دارد. با این اوصاف، مصرف رسانه‌ای بر دغدغه‌ها و آگاهی محیط زیستی تاثیری ندارد. به نظر می رسد صدا و سیما با کمبود کارشناسان و متخصصانی روبرو است که بتوانند مشکلات محیط زیستی را به "گونه‌ای دیگر" عرضه کنند. به عبارت دیگر، به نظر می‌رسد برنامه‌ها نوعا، به صورت مستقیم و خام به مسائل محیط زیستی می‌پردازند و کمتر به جنبه‌های اجتماعی و فرهنگی آن می‌پردازند. این مشکل در جامعه شناسی محیط زیست تحت عنوان "حادثه_ محوری" شناسایی شده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Media, Culture and Environmental Behavior (Case Study: Citizens of Sanandaj)

نویسندگان [English]

  • sadegh salhi 1
  • loghman emamgholi 2
1 Associate Professor of Environmental Sociology, University of Mazandaran, Babolsar, Iran
2 Ph.D. Sociology, University of Mazandaran. Babolsar, Iran
چکیده [English]

Abstract:
In today's world indispensable role of the media in shaping and guiding public opinion and current events of the environment is obvious. Public understanding of environmental issues is related to the impact of the mass media and audience attention. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of media on environmental variables and seek to answer the question of whether the media can change the environmental culture (attitudes, values, concerns and awareness) and environmental behavior or not? Based on related theories in this regard was made planting as a conceptual framework was selected. This study was a survey and statistical sample are Citizens of Sanandaj in 2019. The sample size is 437 subjects were selected using random sampling. Research tool, the questionnaire has been validated and its reliability was confirmed. The results of this study show that environmental attitudes, environmental values and environmental behavior are affected by media use. In contrast, the media does not influence the environmental awareness of environmental concerns. One of the major problems facing Iran's broadcasting is the lack of experts and specialists who can address environmental problems to "other species". In fact, most programs seem to address environmental issues directly and not address social and cultural aspects. This problem has been identified in environmental sociology as the "Event-orientation".
Introduction
We live in a world full of environmental hazards that has been the subject of mass media attention. Typically, no problem goes into public discourse or part of the political process without media coverage. For example, without media coverage, many ordinary people would not be aware of the mad cow disease or the dangers of genetically modified foods. In today's world indispensable role of the media in shaping and guiding public opinion and current events of the environment is obvious. Public understanding of environmental issues is related to the impact of the mass media and audience attention. The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of media on environmental variables and seek to answer the question of whether the media can change the environmental culture (attitudes, values, concerns and awareness) and environmental behavior or not?
Theoretical Framework
In the study of the historical process, the impact of mass media on individuals has been identified in three or more distinct steps. (Absolute Impact, Limited Impact and Emphasis)
Each of these steps has been emphasized by the impact of a mass communication. For example, an absolute impact approach focuses on message; the limited impact approach on the audience and the theory of emphasis although the viewer is dynamic, the message is directed towards the opinions of their audience and, finally, the theory of planting between the amounts of media consumption they create a balance between the audience and the message.
Mass media, an important factor in socializing individuals, shape our attitudes, values, behaviors and perceptions of the real world.
Based on this theory, it can be assumed that media consumption can influence individuals' environmental culture (attitudes, values, concerns, and environmental awareness) and ultimately lead to environmental behavior. Therefore, the planting theory (George Grabner) can better help explain the relationship between media consumption, environmental culture (attitude, value, concern, and environmental awareness) and environmental behavior.
Research Methodology
This study was a survey research methods and statistical sample of people over 18 years living in sanandaj in 2019. The sample size is 437subjects were selected using random sampling. Research tool, the questionnaire has been validated and its reliability was confirmed.
Discussion and Results
The results of the present study showed that media consumption (TV) is 23% of the audience and the person surveyed is high and very high. Based on this, one can expect the reader to have a far lower understanding of environmental issues and problems. This issue became more evident in the environmental awareness debate, so that the audience's awareness was not at the optimum level. The results of this study show that environmental attitude, environmental values and environmental behavior are affected by media use. In contrast, the media does not influence the environmental awareness of environmental concerns.
Conclusion
Based on the theoretical and empirical background of research, the media in today's world play an important role in shaping and guiding public opinion and the development of environmental behaviors. Also, the media are trying to put a certain message of the state of the environment in the public domain. In other words, the media intends to extend the transfer of concepts, thoughts and environmental meanings to the general public. In contrast, audiences try to understand the meanings, concepts, thoughts and meanings of the environment through the media. In other words, audiences with media influences try to convey the meaning of the world around them and, based on this, shape their attitude, consciousness, value, concern, and behavior. Therefore, the success of media in environmental topics depends on the ability of the media to enter these debates. In the subject under discussion in this study, it seems that the success rate of the media is not at the optimal level in entering the environmental debate. Also, based on the theory of planting, mass media, which is an important factor in socializing individuals, create attitudes, values, and responsible environmental behaviors, but in creating awareness and environmental concerns that, based on the results obtained, have the greatest impact on environmental behavior they are not biologically successful. As a result, mass media have not been able to properly plant the knowledge and environmental concerns in the minds of the subjects (planting means internalizing awareness and environmental concerns by the mass media and accepting by audiences and viewers), and effecting Leave the contact.
Finally, the mass media are promising and informing audiences to reach the latest scientific and cultural events and resources for community excellence. Regarding the broadness of the media audience as well as the results of the present study, the media can have a better impact on environmental awareness, attitudes, concerns, values, and behaviors. Accordingly, it is recommended that public authorities (including media program) review and review their environmental approaches and programs and with the assistance of environmental experts in both the technical and social areas of programs and policies. Take actions that help create environmental concerns and raise environmental awareness. This helps the audience to develop environmentally responsible behaviors, and ultimately, the media can respond to one of the most serious challenges in today's world, environmental challenges and crises by affecting its audience.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Media Consumption
  • Environmental Culture
  • environmental behavior
  • survey

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