بررسی جامعه‌شناختی پیدایش گفتمان «سنت و مدرنیته» در میدان موسیقی ایرانی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 دکتری موسیقی، دانشگاه نیوکاسل، نیوکاسل، استرالیا

2 کارشناسی ارشد جامعه شناسی، دانشگاه اصفهان، اصفهان، ایران

چکیده

یکی از گفتمان­های مهم در میدان موسیقی ایرانی از دوره­ی مشروطه به بعد بر محوریت دوگانگی بین سنت و مدرنیته قرار گرفته است. این دوگانگی وقتی ظهور یافت که موسیقی ایرانی در دوره­ی مشروطه با چالش­هایی ملهم از غرب روبرو شد. این گفتمان و کشمکش­های آن ناشی از کنش­های کنش­گران میدان موسیقی ایرانی بود، کنش­گرانی که هر کدام تاحدی واجد سرمایه­ی جدید و یا سرمایه­ی سنتی بودند. با این­که صورت نهایی این گفتمان بیش­تر در دهه­ی 1340 در میدان روشنفکری مفصل­بندی شد، شروع شکل­گیری آن را می­توان تا دهه­ی 1290 پی گرفت، یعنی زمانی که میدان موسیقی تازه داشت شکل می­گرفت. هدف این مقاله آن است که با تمرکز بر جدال میان وزیری و عارف، دو چهره­ی اصلی میدان موسیقی ایرانی، پیدایش این گفتمان را در حوزه­ی موسیقی ایرانی در دهه­ی 1290 بررسی کند. چارچوب مفهومی این پژوهش از نظریه­ی میدان پیر بوردیو است. برای انجام­دادن این پژوهش از روش مطالعه­ی موردی بهره گرفته شده و داده­های مورد نیاز از نوشته­های کنش­گران میدان در روزنامه­ها، مجلات، کتاب­ها و سرگذشت­نامه­ها گردآوری شده است. نتیجه­ی پژوهش حاضر نشان می­دهد که آن­چه به اصطلاح دوگانگی بین سنت و مدرنیته خوانده می­شود در سال­های شکل­گیری میدان موسیقی ایرانی وجود نداشته است، بلکه در نسل­های بعدی به­خاطر موقعیت میدان­های سیاسی و روشنفکری در دهه­ی 1340 برساخت پیدا کرده است.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

On the Genesis of “Tradition/Modernity” Discourse in the Field of Iranian Music

نویسندگان [English]

  • Helen English 1
  • Hassan Khayati 2
1 PhD in Music, University of Newcastle, School of Creative Industries, Newcastle, Australia.
2 Master of Sociology, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran
چکیده [English]

An important discourse in the field of Iranian music since its formation was—and still is—centered on a philosophical duality of tradition versus modernity. This duality emerged when traditional Iranian court music was challenged by new music influenced by the West. The discourse and attendant struggles arose from the differently oriented actions of the field’s agents who were invested to different degrees in modern versus traditional culture. While the discourse was mostly articulated in the 1960s in the intellectual field in Iran, its formation can be traced back to the 1910s at a time when the music field was starting to form. The aim of this article is to investigate this discourse’s genesis in music in the 1910s, mostly by focusing on the debate between Vaziri and Aref, two main figures of the field. The conceptual framework for this research comes from Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory. Bourdieu suggests that every field analysis should start with mapping the field in question vis a vis the field of power. Secondly, mapping out the objective structure of the relations between positions occupied by the agents who compete for the legitimate form of authority. Thirdly, analyzing the habitus of agents, i.e. the set of dispositions created and reformulated through personal history of the agents. A case study method was employed, drawing material mainly gathered from writings by and about field agents in journals, magazines, books and biographies. Accordingly, the steps for this research were taken up by first mapping out the field of Iranian music and positions of agents in the field. In the next step, Vaziri's and Aref's dispositions and trajectories, i.e. how they arrived at their particular positions in the field, will be investigated. TAn important discourse in the field of Iranian music since its formation was—and still is—centered on a philosophical duality of tradition versus modernity. This duality emerged when traditional Iranian court music was challenged by new music influenced by the West. The discourse and attendant struggles arose from the differently oriented actions of the field’s agents who were invested to different degrees in modern versus traditional culture. While the discourse was mostly articulated in the 1960s in the intellectual field in Iran, its formation can be traced back to the 1910s at a time when the music field was starting to form. The aim of this article is to investigate this discourse’s genesis in music in the 1910s, mostly by focusing on the debate between Vaziri and Aref, two main figures of the field. The conceptual framework for this research comes from Pierre Bourdieu’s field theory. A case study method was employed, drawing material mainly gathered from writings by and about field agents in journals, magazines, books and biographies. Finally, we will try to locate the tradition/modernity duality, which is rooted in the field of Iranian music, in the wider social spce and reveal its relations to the field of political power and the field of intellectuals. The case study method allows the use of various sources of data and these have been collected from sources such as magazines, newspapers, biographies, books and articles. Although the focus of this article is on the field of Iranian music, insofar as it helps to analyze the discourse in the field of intellectuals, we have used discourse analysis as suggested by Fairclough.
The study shows that what is considered as the duality between tradition and modernity did not exist in the years when the field of Iranian music was forming, but was worked out in the next generation of the field of Iranian music by the intellectual and political fields in the 1960s.he study shows that what is considered as the duality between tradition and modernity did not exist in the years when the field of Iranian music was forming, but was worked out in the next generation of the field of Iranian music by the intellectual and political fields in the 1960s. Although the formation of the field of Iranian music was related to the economic independence of musicians, its main point of departure for gaining autonomy was its separation from the dominating power of the court. When social differentiation occured and the field of Irania music started to form its autonomy, Vaziri's use of western musical elements ans ideas in the field of Iranian music was a precondition for the autonomy of the foeld. Aref's views on the legacy of old masters of Iranian music were the resukt of being close to the heteronomous pole of the field, by whci, as we tried to show, on ecannnot mean closeness to the field of power, but simply the opposite pole of a field in the process of ganing its autonomy. Although Vaziri's and Aref's positions can be defined in opposition to each other, the elements of the so called tradition/modernity discourse are not manifested here. The reason is that in the first years of the formation of the field of Iranian music the prevailing game of the field, which is necessary for the field’s autonomy, would not allow for such a heterodox discourse. By heterodox discourse we mean a discourse that aims at revealing the game’s rules by showing what is a “tradition” and what is “modernism” in order to prefer one to another, and, consequently, provide the poles with the ideology—one pole with the ideology of “modernization” the other with “traditionalism”—required to form strong oppositions. The game of the field was formed based on the ideas of what Iranian music should be. This is because the field’s autonomy was mostly achieved by relying upon the ideals of a new society which were publicized by the political parties, and this music was planned to be part of this new society. Here, the tradition/modernity duality did not exist as a discourse because all agents of the field, even a figure such as Aref, believed in the game—i. e. as a game worth investing in. The discourse was evident in Mohammad Reza Pahlavi’s period as the result of another differentiation in the social space: one that led to the (re)formation of the field of intellectuals in 1960s. The political suppression led by the Pahlavids resulted in the separation of the cultural elites (i. e. the main supporters of the ideals of the Constitutional Revolution) from the government agenda. It also was manifested in the tradition/modernity discourse of the 1960s. This discourse was formulated in the field of intellectuals to criticize the absolutist state of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi but it was used, in its turn, by the Pahlavi regime to reformulate the regime’s political sovereignty over the social space and its political rivals in the field of political power. Mohammad Reza Pahlavi’s regime sought to reformulate its dominance over the fields and emphasizing this duality between tradition and modernity was one way to do that.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • "duality"
  • " field theory"
  • "Iranian music"
  • " traditional music"