زوال فرهنگ گاگریو: تحلیل انسان‌شناختی دگردیسی عزاداری و سوگ در میان ایلات بختیاری و بهمئی

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار گروه جامعه شناسی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز، اهواز، ایران

2 دانشجوی دکتری جامعه‌شناسی دانشگاه شهید چمران اهواز،اهواز، ایران.

چکیده

تغییرات فرهنگی به سبب ماهیت تدریجی خود در طی تغییر از سبک زندگی سنتی به سبک زندگی مدرن یک فرایند فراگیر اجتماعی شده باشد. در میان افراد و ساکنان مناطق زاگرس جنوبی و در شهرستان های ایذه، باغملک و رامهرمز متاثر از گسترش ابعاد هویت مدرن و تغییر سبک زندگی، بخش زیادی از مناسک مرتبط با شیوه زیست سنتی کمرنگ و یا محو شده اند و به جای آن ها عناصر نوین مرتبط با عصر جدید برقرار شده است. یکی از مهم ترین عرصه هایی که به عنوان نماد تغییرات ذکر شده قابل رویت و رصد است «آیین سوگواری و عزاداری یا گاگریو» است. در پژوهش حاضر که به روش اتنوگرافی انجام شده سعی شده است مهم ترین تغییرات رخ داده در این زمینه مورد واکاوی قرار گیرد. فنون گردآوری داده ها در این پژوهش مشاهده مشارکتی و مصاحبه است. یافته‌ها نشان می‌دهند: سوگ در قالب گاگریو و سرو در میان مردمان این دو ایل کارکرد پیشین را ندارد و از خلال گذار نسلی اهمیت آن کاهش یافته است. سوگ دیگر مانند گذشته از طریق مراسمی باشکوه و خواندن نام طوایف، متوفی و جایگاه بازماندگان در کارکرد دوگانه خود یعنی برساخت تمایزات/ ایجاد همبستگی ایفای نقش نمی کند. و نمی تواند از طریق الزام درونی و مکانیسم جبران همبستگی اجتماعی را افزایش ‌دهد. بدین ترتیب سوگ در قالب گاگریو و سرو رسانه ای است که نمی تواند همچون گذشته بار بازتولید حیات اجتماعی را به دوش کشد.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Cultural anthropology of mourning among the people living in the South Zagros, studied in Ramhormoz, Izeh and Baghmalek counties

نویسندگان [English]

  • Sajad Bahmani 1
  • zolfaghar ahmadi 2
1 Assistant Professor, Department of Sociology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran.
2 PhD student in Sociology, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
چکیده [English]

Whether we accept the idea of evolution or relate it to the realm of raw human imagination, human life is going through stages. This means that the unstoppable change of human social life. Cultural changes, due to their gradual nature, become apparent over several generations. Cultural attitudes, attitudes, beliefs, and practices can be changed in relation to lifestyle changes. Especially in a society where the change from a traditional lifestyle to a modern lifestyle has become an all-encompassing social process. Among the people and residents of the South Zagros region and in the cities of Izeh, Baghmalek and Ramhormoz, due to the expansion of modern identity and lifestyle changes, many of the rituals related to the traditional way of life have faded or disappeared and replaced by new elements. Related to the new era has been established. One of the most important areas that can be seen and observed as a symbol of change is the "ritual of mourning and Gagerive". In the present study, which has been done by ethnographic method, the most important changes that have occurred in this field have been investigated. Data collection techniques in this study are participatory observation and interview. The findings show that mourning in the form of Gagerive and Sad anthem does not have the previous function among the people of these two tribes and its importance has decreased through generational transition. Mourning no longer plays a role in its dual function of making distinctions / creating solidarity through glorious ceremonies and reciting the names of the tribes, the deceased and the survivors. And can not increase social solidarity through internal coercion and compensation mechanism. Thus, mourning is in the form of Gagerive and media, which can not bear the burden of reproducing social life as in the past.
Whether we accept the idea of evolution or relate it to the realm of raw human imagination, human life is going through stages. This means that the unstoppable change of human social life. Cultural changes, due to their gradual nature, become apparent over several generations. Cultural attitudes, attitudes, beliefs, and practices can be changed in relation to lifestyle changes. Especially in a society where the change from a traditional lifestyle to a modern lifestyle has become an all-encompassing social process. Among the people and residents of the South Zagros region and in the cities of Izeh, Baghmalek and Ramhormoz, due to the expansion of modern identity and lifestyle changes, many of the rituals related to the traditional way of life have faded or disappeared and replaced by new elements. Related to the new era has been established. One of the most important areas that can be seen and observed as a symbol of change is the "ritual of mourning and Gagerive". In the present study, which has been done by ethnographic method, the most important changes that have occurred in this field have been investigated. Data collection techniques in this study are participatory observation and interview. The findings show that mourning in the form of Gagerive and Sad anthem does not have the previous function among the people of these two tribes and its importance has decreased through generational transition. Mourning no longer plays a role in its dual function of making distinctions / creating solidarity through glorious ceremonies and reciting the names of the tribes, the deceased and the survivors. And can not increase social solidarity through internal coercion and compensation mechanism. Thus, mourning is in the form of Gagerive and media, which can not bear the burden of reproducing social life as in the past.
Whether we accept the idea of evolution or relate it to the realm of raw human imagination, human life is going through stages. This means that the unstoppable change of human social life. Cultural changes, due to their gradual nature, become apparent over several generations. Cultural attitudes, attitudes, beliefs, and practices can be changed in relation to lifestyle changes. Especially in a society where the change from a traditional lifestyle to a modern lifestyle has become an all-encompassing social process. Among the people and residents of the South Zagros region and in the cities of Izeh, Baghmalek and Ramhormoz, due to the expansion of modern identity and lifestyle changes, many of the rituals related to the traditional way of life have faded or disappeared and replaced by new elements. Related to the new era has been established. One of the most important areas that can be seen and observed as a symbol of change is the "ritual of mourning and Gagerive". In the present study, which has been done by ethnographic method, the most important changes that have occurred in this field have been investigated. Data collection techniques in this study are participatory observation and interview. The findings show that mourning in the form of Gagerive and Sad anthem does not have the previous function among the people of these two tribes and its importance has decreased through generational transition. Mourning no longer plays a role in its dual function of making distinctions / creating solidarity through glorious ceremonies and reciting the names of the tribes, the deceased and the survivors. And can not increase social solidarity through internal coercion and compensation mechanism. Thus, mourning is in the form of Gagerive and media, which can not bear the burden of reproducing social life as in the past.
Whether we accept the idea of evolution or relate it to the realm of raw human imagination, human life is going through stages. This means that the unstoppable change of human social life. Cultural changes, due to their gradual nature, become apparent over several generations. Cultural attitudes, attitudes, beliefs, and practices can be changed in relation to lifestyle changes. Especially in a society where the change from a traditional lifestyle to a modern lifestyle has become an all-encompassing social process. Among the people and residents of the South Zagros region and in the cities of Izeh, Baghmalek and Ramhormoz, due to the expansion of modern identity and lifestyle changes, many of the rituals related to the traditional way of life have faded or disappeared and replaced by new elements. Related to the new era has been established. One of the most important areas that can be seen and observed as a symbol of change is the "ritual of mourning and Gagerive". In the present study, which has been done by ethnographic method, the most important changes that have occurred in this field have been investigated. Data collection techniques in this study are participatory observation and interview. The findings show that mourning in the form of Gagerive and Sad anthem does not have the previous function among the people of these two tribes and its importance has decreased through generational transition. Mourning no longer plays a role in its dual function of making distinctions / creating solidarity through glorious ceremonies and reciting the names of the tribes, the deceased and the survivors. And can not increase social solidarity through internal coercion and compensation mechanism. Thus, mourning is in the form of Gagerive and media, which can not bear the burden of reproducing social life as in the past.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • gagerive
  • Mourning
  • Bahmaei
  • Bakhtiari