عنوان مقاله [English]
The concept of nature, despite its simple, clear and comprehensible appearance, is a mysterious and complicated concept and has traveled a long and winding path throughout history until today. "Nature (physis) in Greek culture is designed and understood in relation to Logos, Eros, Cosmos, Chaos, Tragedy, Mimesis, Poiesis, Techne, Praxis, Dialectic and Paideia. Various fields of studies of mythology, history, culture, society, economy and politics, philosophy, art and literature, and many sciences, according to their perceptions of nature; They plan and formulate their affairs and phenomena and how they face each other.The representation of nature in all fields of human knowledge has always been based on conceptual and metaphorical dual oppositions about nature: transcendence /immanent, dynamic /static, mechanical /organic,theological /materialistic, deterministic /occasionalistic and animate /inanimate. Considering the opinions of German, French, English and American philosophers and thinkers in the last decades of the 18th century and throughout the 19th century, it can be safely said that the most obvious and complex view of nature was formed in the great flow of romanticism. The concept of nature in the school of romanticism is a multi-layered and deep concept. Reducing the movement, rather the great revolution of romanticism to a literary and artistic school, on the one hand and highlighting characteristics such as reaction, opposition to rationalism, enlightenment and civilization, praise of melancholy and suffering and disease; On the other hand, it has caused the suppression of valuable aspects of romanticism, which are now showing themselves in the process of "the return of the repressed" - according to Ernesto Laclau-.Our approach in this research is philosophical and political. Our attempt was to bring these two types of encounters together in the fundamental concept of nature, that is, in addition to the aesthetic aspects of nature, we intend to indicate the philosophical foundations and political contexts of the focalization of nature and its relation to other concepts of romanticism including individuality, subjectivity and anti-capitalism orientation. The results of the research show that romanticism has intelligently attracted various parts of the opinions of philosophers and thinkers, which it saw as compatible with its essence and orientation, and with the idea of "romanticizing the world" and "understanding the world as a work of art" was looking for solutions to problems that covered all philosophical, epistemological, ethical, aesthetic and political fields.